Newsletter of the International Geographical Union Study Group on the Geography of Sustainable Tourism: Development and Protection of Cultural and Natural Heritage

Number 4, January 1996

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Chairperson and Editor: Frederick M. Helleiner
Department of Geography
Trent University, P.O. Box 4800
Peterborough, Ontario, Canada, K9J 7B8

Secretary: C. Michael Hall
Tourism Programme
University of Canberra, P.O. Box 1, Belconnen, A.C.T. 2616, Australia


The International Geographical Union Study Group which sponsors this newsletter is now over a year old, and well into the second and final year of its two-year mandate. According to the statutes of the I.G.U., its term may be renewed for an additional two years, i.e., 1996 to 1998, after which no further renewal is possible. Nevertheless, a request has been forwarded to the I.G.U. Executive Committee for a four-year renewal (1996 to 2000) so that it may continue to function throughout the period leading up to the General Assembly of the I.G.U. in Seoul, Korea in 2000, at which time it might be converted to the status of an I.G.U. Commission. I have no assurance that the Executive Committee will override its own statutes by acceding to this request.

If it is not possible to renew the Study Group for four years, the Executive Committee has been asked to put before the 1996 I.G.U. General Assembly in The Hague our proposal to create a Commission for the four-year period, 1996-2000. Commissions can be created only by a vote of the General Assembly, at which all of the I.G.U. member nations have a vote. I would ask each corresponding member of this Study Group, i.e., everyone who receives TOURISTinfo, to seek the support of your national representative to the I.G.U. General Assembly in voting for the establishment of a Commission on the Geography of Sustainable Tourism: Development and Protection of Cultural and Natural Heritage. The proposed goals for such a Commission are the same as those of the present Study Group, which were published in TOURISTinfo No. 2, January, 1995. I am confident that the Study Group has made enough progress towards those goals, even in the short period of its existence, that its future will be assured, in one form or another, until the year 2000. It is represented in 39 I.G.U. member countries, every one of which should be persuaded to vote in favour of a Commission.

Regrettably, however, I shall be unable to serve as Chair of either a Study Group or a Commission beyond the year 1998, when I shall reach retirement age. Therefore, I have asked the full members of the present Study Group to be prepared, at its 1996 meeting in The Hague, to find a replacement for me. Ideally, in my opinion, it should be someone who has already served as a full member of the Study Group and who therefore has some understanding of what the task entails. Please express your views on this important matter to any of the full members of the Study Group, whose names (with one exception - A. Lew, United States) were listed in TOURISTinfo No. 1, January, 1994.

The future health of this Study Group or Commission will depend, as it has up to now, on the active participation of its members, both full members and corresponding members, in its activities. Understandably, not everyone can attend its meetings, which take place in far-flung parts of the world. However, the meeting at the International Geographical Congress in The Hague in August, 1996 is an occasion which every member should try to attend. It will be the only opportunity for us to chart the course of the Study Group/Commission for the years ahead. In the meantime, members should continue to use TOURISTinfo as a vehicle for communicating with others who may share their interests. Submission deadlines of March 31 and September 30 each year were announced earlier. It has not been possible, for various reasons, to publish the newsletter as soon after those deadlines as I had originally hoped. Consequently, I am proposing that April 30 and October 31 deadlines may be more realistic. Since each issue of the entire newsletter needs to be translated into French, using the entirely voluntary assistance of Professor Jean-Michel Dewailly and his colleagues, correspondents should not wait until those deadlines to submit material to me. It is much easier for him to deal with a steady flow of information than to cope with the huge task of translating an entire issue all at once. We again owe him our thanks for his dedication. We also owe thanks to Professor Anton Gosar of Ljubljana, Slovenia for arranging the printing and distribution of this issue, and to Mlle Lydia Amara and Ms. Marilyn Miller for typing the French and English editions, respectively.

At the end of this issue, there is a questionnaire which I would ask each member of the Study Group to complete and return to me. It is designed to review the effectiveness of the Study Group in achieving its goals, and the effectiveness of TOURISTinfo in promoting communication.

- Frederick M. Helleiner.


I have been given the very much appreciated opportunity to present the State of the Art Lecture to the Plenary session of the IGU on behalf of the Study Group. In order to ensure that what I say will reflect, at least to some degree, the collective wisdom and approaches of the Study Group, I am asking for members' advice and reaction to the following outline.

I will try to incorporate these into the final version of the paper. Responses can be made by mail, fax, e-mail or telephone to the author at the address below. I thank you for your assistance.

Dr. Richard Butler
Department of Geography
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
N6A 5V2
Phone:(519) 679-2111 ext. 5024
Fax: (519) 661-3750

Tourism and Sustainable Development

As with many other subjects, tourism has become inextricably linked with the concept of sustainable development, and much attention has been paid to "sustainable tourism". At the same time, the rise in environmental consciousness has seen the parallel appearance of a large number of "alternative" forms of tourism, along with a great deal of ideological and polemical debate about the role of tourism in development and its impacts on societies, economies and environments.

The paper will attempt to document, interpret and synthesize some of the literature relevant to these trends, and to suggest some common themes and concepts which transcend what has tended to become an often disparate and even divisive discussion. It will attempt to examine specifically two elements of sustainability in the context of tourism, the sustainability of environments in which tourism is present or proposed, and the sustainability of societies and cultures.

It will raise and discuss a number of issues, and comment on the state of the art of knowledge about these issues based on a review of the literature. Issues to be included are: whether the concept of sustainability is the same in both environmental and social settings; whether it is possible to achieve sustainability without imposing limits on use and/or numbers; how technology and infrastructure development relate to sustainable development; how local values and external values can be reconciled with respect to defining and implementing sustainable development in specific locations; and how other elements of the tourism system such as local cultural and natural heritage, the economic benefits of tourism, and the tourism market of specific destinations can be sustained.

Finally, the issue of the definition of sustainable development in the context of tourism will be addressed, along with the role of policy, and policy formulation and implementation. If sustainable tourism is not satisfactorily defined, then there is little chance of formulating and implementing an effective tourism policy to achieve this goal. Examples of successful definition and policy creation and implementation will be sought for discussion and evaluation.

- R.W. Butler


CARLO CENCINI, Director of the Institute of Geography, University of Bologna, Viale Filopanti 5, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Phone: +39-51-354350; FAX: 39-51-354365.
I am involved - together with a group of Geographers of the University of Bologna - in a research project concerning the application of the idea of sustainability to the regional scale, as recommended by the UN Conference in Rio in 1992, through Agenda 21.
In particular the project aims to focus the development of coastal tourism and recreational activities and the policies of environmental conservation in the Adriatic Riviera (Italy), the most extensive tourist conurbation in the Mediterranean region.

MICHAEL F. TANNER, School of Geography, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, U.K. E-mail:
My current research interest is in the conservation of traditional agricultural landscapes. These form an important but often neglected part of the cultural heritage in parts of Europe and North America, where they sometimes contribute to the attractiveness of tourist areas. Their deterioration as a result of the mechanization and intensification of agricultural production may therefore be regarded as damaging to the tourist environment.

GABRIEL WACKERMANN, Director of the Laboratory of International Research in Transport and Trade, University of Paris - Sorbonne, U.F.R. de G‚ographie, 191, rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Phone: 43 29 01 47; FAX: 40 46 25 88.
Professor Wackermann has particularly directed his research and that of his senior students to the role of tourism and leisure in our service-oriented society, from both a socio-cultural and an economic point of view. His particular concern is to investigate the manner in which recreation and tourism become a "product," a concept often far removed from the real meaning of recreation and tourism. In this area, cultural identity and an environmental framework become fundamental concerns of the research.

STANISLAW S. SZADZINSKI, Stare Zegrze 76 m 9, 61-249 Poznan, Poland. Phone/FAX: (48 61) 79 69 12.
Professor Szadzinski, aged 44 years, received a master's degree in geography from the University of Poznaž in 1975 and a doctorate in economic science from the Central School of Commerce in Warsaw in 1985. He subsequently held a French government scholarship in the economy of tourism (1987) at the Centre des Hautes Etudes Touristiques, Universit‚ d'Aix-Marseille. He is a researcher and professor in the fields of regional land use planning and the economy of tourist areas. He has authored numerous studies and projects. He is seeking a teaching or research position in a foreign country in a university, college, or national or international agency. He has very good knowledge of French and Polish, a good command of English and Russian, and basic knowledge of German and Spanish. He asks that readers of TOURISTinfo who can help him contact him at the above address.

DAVID BARKIN, Professor de Economia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Xochimilco, Apartado 23-181, 16000 Xochimilco, DF, Mexico. Phone: (525) 724-5100; FAX: (525) 724- 5235.
I am creating a certificate in Ecotourism and local productive strategies and would welcome the opportunity to have input from members of your group.

R.S. LEE, Centre for Tourism Research & Development, A-965/6 Indira Nagar, Lucknow 226 016, U.P., India. Phone: (0522) 381586; FAX: 91- 0522-381586.
I have accepted the Chair (India Chapter) for the Asia Pacific Tourism Association, set up by A Dong University, Pusan, South Korea. Its inaugural symposium was held in September, 1995 and drew speakers from 13 countries.

PROFESSOR JEAN-PIERRE LOZATO- GIOTART,17 rue Nicola‹, 75012 Paris, France. Phone: (1) 43 40 22 31.
I am co-director of the Tourism Engineering Institute of Marne-la-Vall‚e/Paris I. I have the responsibility for the spatial seminar (ecosystem and management planning of territories). My work deals with geographic aspects of tourism and islands. A book will be published in 1996.

TAYFUN ILHAN, Meslek Yüksekokulu Turizm ve Otelcilik Bölümü, Tekirdag, Turkey.
I am a teaching staff member at the department of Tourism of Thrace University in Tekirdaž, Turkey. I have been researching my doctorate thesis. The thesis subject is: "can the environment be protected by means of tourism?" Concerning this subject the key words are also: ecotourism, tourism and economic development, ecological carrying capacity, sustainable tourism, etc. I should be very grateful if readers of TOURISTinfo could send me some documents because in Turkey I am in lack of enough documents. Could they also inform me where I can write to about this subject?

GLENN KREAG, Assistant Specialist, Tourism, Associate Extension Professor, Minnesota Sea Grant Program & Tourism Center, University of Minnesota, 2305 East 5th St., Duluth, MN 55812, U.S.A. Phone: 218-726-8714; FAX: 218-726-6556; e-mail:
I am working on sustainable tourism efforts in Minnesota, particularly with regard to the Lake Superior coastal region. The Great Lakes network of Sea Grant programs is currently examining management techniques for sustainable tourism development. I will be on a 3-month consultancy in Tanzania, East Africa in late 1995 to gather and organize data, and establish a visitor monitoring system of marketing and economic information. I have done considerable work in rural tourism including co-authoring the publications "A Training Guide for Rural Tourism Development" and "Q&A About Rural Tourism Development."

PROF. DR. TEOFIL LIJEWSKI, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-927 Warszawa, Krakowskie Przedmiežcie 30, Poland. Phone: 20-03-81; FAX: 48- 22-267-267.
I am interested in the geography of tourism. I was a member of the first Commission of Tourism Geography initiated by Professor Matznetter and then headed by Professor Barbier. I attended several meetings of the Commission (in Olomouc 1973, Sofia 1975, Aix-en-Provence 1981, Sulej¢w 1983, Sousse 1987, Marrakesh 1991) and read there papers on tourism in Poland. I wrote the book "Geography of Tourism in Poland" with two other authors (in the Polish language) and some articles. As an active tourist I am interested in this branch of geography.

NORA L. BRINGAS RžBAGO, 128, rue Mouffetard, 75005, Paris, France. Phone and FAX: (1) 45. 35. 58. 69.
I am carrying on research in Mexico, working at "El Colegio de la Frontera Norte" in Tijuana, a multidisciplinary research centre encompassing cultural, political, economic, social and environmental studies along the border between Mexico and the United States. During the past few years, I have worked on the economic importance for Mexico of cross-border tourism, and on tourism in the Tijuana- Ensenada coastal zone of Lower California, where many Americans have second homes. At present, I am writing my doctoral thesis in Paris, with the intention of staying here until next year. Then I will return to Mexico to continue my research on the management of coastal space in the Tijuana-Ensenada tourist corridor, on the northern boundary of Mexico, and would like to propose measures for allowing coastal tourism and cross-border tourism to become a sustainable tourism alternative.

JAN TRICÁTNIK, Lecturer in Travel Geography, University of South Bohemia, Department of Service Industries, Economics, and Tourism, Vancurova 2904 Tábor, Czech Republic. Phone/FAX: +0042 361 25 30 57.
The Department of Service Industries, Economics and Tourism is part of the University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Agriculture. We provide three- year bachelor education for managerial and leadership functions in Service Industries and Tourism. The department has been operating for three years, during which our research programme has been concentrating on the potential of the South Bohemian landscape for tourism in this region. The South Bohemian area is one of the most important regions of domestic and foreign tourism, because of its eminent cultural and natural heritage. We would be very glad to offer cooperation in various research projects. Living in the middle of such an important area from the point of view of tourism and its development, we think we are able to provide real, fresh information about the present state of tourism in our country which, as we hope, can be useful for our colleagues dealing with the same problem. Any information will be highly appreciated.

DR. ELENA SEREDINA, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography, Staromonetnyj 29, 109017, Moscow, Russia. Phone: (095) 238 18 45; FAX: (095) 230 20 90; e-mail:
My dissertation is devoted to the specific socio- economic development of a peripheral rural region with a rich cultural and natural heritage and its comparison with another peripheral rural region without one. It has shown that the infrastructure and all the economic forms are developed more successfully in the regions attractive to tourists. But, at the same time, the traditional economic types which are attractive to tourists are lost. The museums, as well, were the research objects. It was demonstrated that the museums as the focus of the tourist streams are forming zones around themselves, where tourism is developed more intensively. The spatial parameters of zones and the reasons for their differences were determined.

PROF. DR. MOHAMED BERRIANE, Facult‚ des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines, Universit‚ Mohammed V, BoŒte postale 1040, Rabat, Morocco. Phone and FAX: 212 7 67 19 61.
I am a Moroccan geographer and have been working in the field of tourism and recreation since 1978 on two theses: Moroccan tourist areas and domestic tourism, both of which have been published, one in France and the other in Morocco. I am interested in problems related to the impact of tourism on local planning, with respect to its environmental effects and its effects on regional development. Currently, I am developing plans for an international colloquium on domestic tourism, and will keep your readers informed of the details.

DOTT. MARIO CASARI, Docente di Geografia Ist. Tecn. per il Turismo, Via Gaudenzio Ferrari 7, 20123 Milano, Italy. Phone: 02-58110270.
Together with Professor Leandro Pedrini, Universit… di Bologna, I have written a textbook dealing with the geography of tourism for touristic secondary schools. The second edition will be ready in January, 1996. I have carried out research into the touristic use of a natural park near a big city and educational problems in the Italian schools. Central to my interest now is the development of tourism in Milan.

PROF. ANA MARIA BOSCHI DE BERGALLO, Director of Department of Tourist Resource - Facultad of Tourism, Comahue National University, Buenos Aires 1400 (8300) Neuqu‚n Capital. Argentina. Phone: 54-99-431292; FAX: 54-99- 485982; e-mail: RENATUR.EDU.AR.
My main field of research at present is the Environmental impacts of Tourist Use, and Recreational Carrying Capacity in Protected Areas (parks). Among other things, this would be an interesting area for large-scale comparative studies.

PROF. JEAN-MICHEL DEWAILLY, U.F.R. de G‚ographie et d'Am‚nagement, Universit‚ des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve D'Ascoq Cedex, France. Phone:; FAX:
I am particularly interested in tourist development and management in relation to problems of regional, planning, of local development, and of the environment, especially in northwestern Europe and in densely populated regions. I am equally interested in consideration of the tourist system.


The World Conference on Sustainable Tourism, which took place in Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain on April 27-28, 1995, has issued a Charter for Sustainable Tourism (five pages in English, six pages in French or Spanish) and six resolutions for follow- up activity. Although these statements are likely to be of interest to readers of TOURISTinfo, there is not space to print them in their entirety. Anyone wishing a photocopy of the appropriate pages should notify the Editor of TOURISTinfo, indicating the preferred language.


The International Geographical Union Study Group on the Geography of Sustainable Tourism regional symposium was held at the Centre for Tourism and Leisure Policy Research, University of Canberra, Australia on 2-4 September, 1995. The meeting was attended by over 50 academics, students and members of industry over the two days of the symposium and the associated field trip on wine tourism. Although focussed primarily on Australia and New Zealand, the meeting also attracted attendees from Canada, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland, and the United States.

The symposium attracted 31 presentations over the two days of the meeting proper. The Opening Address was provided by Professor Frederick Helleiner, President of the Study Group.

The first session on 'Perspectives on Tourism and Sustainability' gave an excellent background to some of the key issues to be addressed over the symposium. Three papers were presented in this session. Kaye Thorn & Stephen Page (Massey University-Albany, New Zealand), 'Planning for Tourism Growth'; Larry Dwyer & Robyn Bushell (University of Westem Sydney), 'A Theme Driven Approach to Sustainable Tourism Development'; and Simon Milne (McGill University), 'Tourism and Sustainable Development in South Pacific Microstates: Exploring the Key Role of Distribution Technologies'.

The next session focussed on some of the social and industrial dimensions of Tourism and Sustainability: Rob Harris and Simon Darcy (University of Technology-Sydney), `Sustainable Tourism Development in Australia: Case Studies in Innovation and Best Practice'; Kreg Lindberg (Oregon State University), `New Models for Assessing Tourism's Social Impacts and Understanding Resident Attitudes'; Jim Macbeth (Murdoch University), `Sustainable Community - Tourism in the ex-Shire of Omeo. Part 2: Action Research or Research in Action'; and Anna Baric (University of Western Sydney-Macarthur) - `Community Involvement in Sustainable Tourism Development for the Southern Highlands.'

The following sessions examined specific issues of tourism and sustainability within the context of alpine tourism and ecotourism. Three papers were presented which related to alpine areas: Justine Digance (Griffith University) & Richard Norris (University of Canberra), `National Parks, Ski Resorts and Other Recreation: Are They a Sustainable Mix'; Bob McKercher (Charles Sturt University-Albury), `Benefits and Costs of Tourism in Victoria's Alpine National Park'; and a paper of universal interest by Urs Koenig (University of Zurich) on the `Impacts of Climate Change on Winter Tourism in the Swiss Alps.'

The session on ecotourism examined nature-based tourism in a variety of different environments. Thomas Bauer (Victoria University of Technology) presented a challenging paper on `Environmental Issues in Antarctic Tourism: a Comparison Between the Literature, Expert Opinions and First Hand Observations'; Russell Blamey and Val Braithwaite (Bureau of Tourism Research, Australia) gave a discussion of their Australian research in `A Social Values Segmentation of the Potential Ecotourism Market'; while a New Zealand perspective was provided by James Higham (University of Otago) in `Sustainable Wilderness Tourism: Motivations and Wilderness Perceptions held by International Visitors to New Zealand's Backcountry Conservation Estate'.

Three papers on the nature of ecotourism were presented which examined ecotourism at a number of different scales. Ross Dowling (The University of Notre Dame, Australia) discussed `Regional Ecotourism Development Plans: Theory and Practice'; Russell Blamey (Bureau of Tourism Research) looked at problems in operationalising the concept in `The Elusive Market Profile: Operationalising Ecotourism'; while Carolyn Wild (WILD Intemational) reviewed an ecotourism case study in `Sila Lodge: The Development of a Remote Naturalist's Lodge'.

The session on Choice, Decisions and Activities included techniques-oriented papers by Astrid Kemperman (Eindhoven University of Technology) on `Consumer Choice and Theme Parks: Using a Cross Effects Model to Test for Variety Seeking Behaviour'; Bernard Dellaert (University of Sydney) on `Modelling Tourists' Activity Patterns Through Stated Choice Experiments'; Narelle Beaumont (Griffith University) on `Perceived Crowding as an Evaluative Standard for Determining Social Carrying Capacity in Tourist/Recreation Areas'; and Marcus P. Stemerding (Eindhoven University of Technology) on `Planning for Sustainable Recreation and Tourism: A Decision Support System to Assess the Impacts of Car Use Reduction Programs'.

The Intemational Dimensions session contained papers by Robert Inbakaran (Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology), `The Geographical Structure of the Tourism Industry in Tamil Nadu, India: A Focus on Cultural and Heritage Tourism'; Frederick Helleiner (Trent University), `Spatial Variation in Tourism Promotion in Canada: A Geography of Heritage'; Christine Beddoe (ECPAT Australia), `Beach Boys, Culture Brokers and Sexploitation'; and John Crotts (University of Otago) `Adding Green Technologies to the Sustainable Tourism Menu: Making Tourism More Sustainable in the Caribbean'.

Another session discussed tourism policy and organisational structures in tourism and featured papers by Diane Burns (James Cook University of North Queensland), `Sustainable Tourism Management User Pays? or Who Pays?'; Nina Mistilis (University of Technology-Sydney), `Impediments to Private Sector Involvement in Public Infrastructure: A Tourism Industry View in Australia'; Kathryn Pavlovich (University of Waikato), `To Sink or Swim? Interorganisational Relationships as a Survival Mechanism Within Tourism Destinations'; and John Jenkins (University of Canberra), `Commonwealth Govemment Involvement in Rural Tourism and Regional Development'.

The final session of the symposium entitled `Towards Sustainable Tourism?' highlighted the need for greater consideration of the concept of sustainability and its application. Three papers were presented: Geoff Kearsley (University of Otago), `Managing the Consequences of Over-use by Tourists of New Zealand's Conservation Estate'; Stephen Page (Massey University-Albany), `The Impact of Urban Tourism on Destination Communities: Implications for Community Tourism Planning in Auckland'; and Michael Hall (University of Canberra) on `Creating Sustainable Places'. On the 4 September, 15 attendees participated in a Field Trip to Canberra's Cool Climate Wine Region.

The symposium was judged by many of the participants to be a culinary as well as an academic success. Discussion and debate were far-ranging and a number of important issues regarding the nature of tourism geography and the role of the academic in undertaking research and teaching in tourism were highlighted. After going through the refereeing process, a number of papers will appear in a forthcoming issue of the Journal of Sustainable Tourism, while several of the Australian and New Zealand papers will appear in a forthcoming book on Tourism Policy and Planning in Australia and New Zealand. For further information please contact Associate Professor Michael Hall, Centre for Tourism and Leisure Policy Research, University of Canberra, PO Box 1, Belconnen, ACT 2616, Australia; Fax: 61- 6-201 5119; E-mail:


Recognizing that the conflict between indispensable economic development and requisite environmental protection cries out for prompt resolution, and that successful conflict resolution calls initially for an unambiguous framing of the issue or issues in dispute and an identification of the relevant facts with suffident clarity to leave no room for argument or ignorance, the Earth Pledge Foundation has decided to sponsor and conduct a year-long Essay Contest and International Internet Dialogue, beginning on April 1, 1995 and ending on March 31, 1996, with $100,000 in prizes. As the contest unfolds over the course of the year, interim semi-finalists will be chosen, and these essays will be presented, along with commentary from a panel of judges and the general public, to further the discussion.

The goal of the contest and dialogue, which will be conducted utilizing the Foundation's World Wide Web computer server, is to encourage the discussion and understanding of sustainable development among as wide an audience as possible. In sum, the Earth Pledge Foundation aims to foster analysis of specific projects and proposals and debate on the efficacy of sustainable development itself.

Rules & Guidelines

The Earth Pledge Foundation is looking for essays that will advance the understanding of Sustainable Development, bring new methods and technologies to the attention of everyone interested in the concept, and generate dialogue. EPF's goal in this contest is to further the dialogue and manage the ensuing debate in such a way that a clearer understanding of what Sustainable Development really means and how it can be beneficially applied can emerge. Essays can address any specific issue of Sustainable Development prompted by our Questions Document for ideas and guidance - and ideally should provide an answer to one or all of the following questions:

* What does Sustainable Development mean to you?
* How would you translate your experience and/or viewpoint into action?
* Is Sustainable Development a useful concept?
We also have a special category for artwork submitted by children.

The contest officially runs from April 1, 1995 through March 31, 1996. Essays can be submitted at any time from April 1, 1995 through February 29, 1996. Essays should not exceed 2,000 words.

You may enter under one of the following contestant categories:

* Scholar/Academic/Journalist
* Representative of NGO, research institution, industry
* Individual
* Kids' Essays (15 and under?)
* Kids' Artwork (12 and under?)

Please indicate the applicable contestant category and your affiliation, if any, when submitting your essay. Periodically, EPF will forward the most cogent, compelling, enlightening, and informative essays to our distinguished panel of Judges, who will select the best essays in each contestant category. These essays, interim winners, will be available for viewing and downloading at this Web site, and their authors will receive $1,000 prizes ($500 for each children's category) at the time they are presented online.

Essays may constitute a response, endorsement, or rebuttal of a previous winning essay. Please indicate which essay you are responding to when submitting by noting its author and title.

Beginning in March, 1996, the Judges will do a final reconsideration of all the previous interim winning essays to determine their choices for Grand Prizes of $10,000 and Runner-Up Prizes of $5,000 ($5,000 and $2,500 respectively for the children's categories). At this stage, the judges will take into account the comments that interim winning essays have generated on the EPF system. Submissions can be sent to regional UNEP offices around the world by regular mail. These submissions cannot be returned.


1. Austria Tourism Geography and the German- speaking Working Group for Leisure and Tourism Geography announce a conference on: Urban Tourism and Urban Culture - between
Tradition and Innovation
Sustainable Regional Development through Tourism
October 3-6, 1996
near Vienna

Program excerpts:

ž Urban tourism: status of research, analyses, marketing, sustainability, cultural management, sight- seeing in Vienna.

ž Excursion to the Wachau Region.

ž Sustainable Regional Development through Tourism (research findings of the Working Group).

Please note the following:

ž registration and detailed program after May, 1996.

ž reduced fees for students.

Organizers (both at the Economic University of Vienna):
Univ.-Doz. Dr. Herbert Baumhackl (e-mail: Univ.-Doz. Dr. Felix Jlg (e-mail: Felix. with support from the Applied University of Tourist Management and Leisure Economy in Krems, the Department of Applied Economic Geography and Spatial Integration Research of the Economic University of Vienna, and the Geographic Institute of the University of Vienna.

2. Russian Academy of Sciences/Kola Science Centre/Administration of Apatity:

September 10-12, 1996

Organizers: Geological Institute, Econord, Khibiny Co., Nordic Study Centre KSC RAS The aim of the conference is to arrange the meeting for those who are interested in the development of Northern areas - administrators, scientific researchers, tourist companies etc.
Official language - English

Proposed paper sessions:
S.1.Tourism strategies in newly developed regions
S.2.Ethnic tourism in polar areas
S.3.Scientific and educational tourism
S.4.Parks planning and management
S.5.Economic issues in tourism and recreation
S.6.Techno-eco-policies planning and development
S.7.Ecological tourism in terms of science
S.8.Youth tourism as a part of ecological tourism

Proposed workshops:
P.1.Adventure tourism
P.2.Geological, mineralogical, botanical & bio-tours
P.3.Tourist partnership within Barents region
P.4.Advertisement in tourism
P.5.Alpine skiing in Northern areas

2 days before and after the conference
G.1.Amethyst deposit on Cape Ship
G.2.Astrophyllite valley in Khibiny mountains
G.3.The world's largest apatite deposit
G.4.Individual mineralogical trips
G.5.Images of Imandra Lake
G.6.Atomic power plant, Polyarny Zory
G.7.Atomic fleet in Murmansk
G.8.Islands of Kandalaksha Bay
G.9.Polar vegetation and visit to the Botanical garden
G.10.Saami settlement in Lovozero
G.11.Russian coast-dweller's settlement Kovda and wooden church of 17th century

We really hope to use the best experience of international conference management. Professional interpreters from English will help to break linguistic barriers between specialists from different countries. Accommodation will be at a comfortable hotel (USD 55 per night) with swimming pool, sauna and sport hall, located on the shore of a beautiful Lake Imandra in green zone of Apatity.

Participants are welcome to arrive to Murmansk or to Kirkenes airport (Norway), only in 30 km from Russian cross-border point Boris-Gleb - where we can collect you by bus (for special rate). For those who prefer coming via Moscow or St. Petersburg, a special 3-day cultural programme is suggested (for special rate) before the trip to Apatity.


Regular fee before July 31 USD 150 (students USD 100)
Regular fee August 1 USD 175 (students 125)
Full registration includes attendance to sessions, meals and breaks, Banquet, transport during conference days, editing of abstracts, interpreter's service, cultural programme.
Contact Person:
Mikhail Torokhov, Fersman Str., 14, Apatity, Murmansk Reg. 184200 RUSSIA
Telex: 126129 KOLSC SU
Fax: +47-78914153 from all countries
+7-512 9514153 only from Norway and Finland; e- mail:

3. The Recreation, Tourism and Sport Specialty Group of the Association of American Geographers (AAG-RTS) has organized nine sessions and a business meeting at the annual conference of the A.A.G. in Charlotte, North Carolina, April 9-13, 1996. Following are the titles and tentative times of those sessions of interest to TOURISTinfo readers:
Wed., April 10 - Tourism and Place in the Coastal South and Island
Thurs., p.m., April 11 - Recreation Planning and Sport Geography
Thurs., p.m., April 11 - AAG-RTS Specialty Group business meeting
Fri., 1:30 p.m., April 12 - Plenary Session - Cassino Gaming and Economic Development on Indian Reservations
Fri., p.m., April 12 - Ethnic Tourism and Indian Gaming in the U.S.
Fri., p.m., April 12 - Tourism Evolution and Development
Sat., a.m. April 13 - Ecotourism I: The Development of a Specialty Travel Industry
Sat., a.m. April 13 - Ecotourism II: Environmental Conservation
Sat., a.m., or p.m., April 13 - Ecotourism IIIa and IIIb: Pros and Cons - Panel Presentation.

4. The University of Nevada, Las Vegas will host the Second Environments for Tourism Conference, June 3-5, 1996, at the Stardust Resort in Las Vegas, Nevada.

Architecture, Design, And Planning of Tourist Facilities
- architecture and design of hotels, resorts, and theme parks,
- hotel and resort construction technologies,
- perception and imagery of tourist places,
- interior design of tourism facilities,
- tourism and historic images, etc.

Engineering, Innovations, And Entertainment Technology
- energy conservation,
- indoor air quality,
- transportation and pedestrian mover systems,
- computer simulation and virtual reality,
- entertainment systems technology, etc.

Tourism Development, Economic, Marketing, and Management
- human resource management in tourism,
- strategic management of travel services,
- trends in travel and tourism,
- eco-tourism and sustainability, etc.

Proposals for paper presentations, complete panels, and workshops are welcomed.

Deadline for receipt of 500 word abstracts is February 28, 1996. Please include your fax or email address. Address inquires and abstracts to: Dr. Wesley S. Roehl, Environments for Tourism Conference, W.F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Box 456023, Las Vegas, Nevada, 89154-6023. Telephone, fax, and e-mail addresses are, respectively, (702) 895-3865, (702) 895-4870, and Notification concerning proposal acceptance will be sent by March 17, 1996.

Conference registration, prior to April 15, 1996 is US$300. Registration after April 15, 1996 is US$350. Payment must be in US funds and checks should be made payable to Board of Regents, UNLV. All Conference participants must register. Registration includes participation in all sessions, the Conference Proceedings, the opening reception (June 3), breakfast and lunch (June 4 & 5), breakfast (June 6), and any scheduled tours. Attractive room rates have been arranged at the Stardust.


1. Shalini Singh, Cultural Tourism and Heritage Management, Rawat Publication, Jaipur 1994, 200 pp., Price Rs. 225, US$30 (HB); ISBN:81-70 33 233- 3. One reviewer states, žDr. Shalinižs study should be considered a pioneering work in cultural tourism.ž

2. Theme issue of Tourism Recreation Research devoted to Eco-Tourism: Vol. 20, No.1, 1995, guest editor, Dr. Betty Weiler.

3. Theme issue of Tourism Recreation Research devoted to Tourism Education and Human Resource Development: Vol. 20, No. 2, 1995, guest editor, Prof. J.R. Brent Ritchie.

4. Zbigniew Mieczkowski, Environmental Issues of Tourism and Recreation, University Press of America, Inc., 4720 Boston Way, Lanham, Maryland 20726, U.S.A., 1995, 552 pp.; ISBN 0-8191-9994-X (cloth); ISBN 0-8191-9995-8 (paper).