SUBMITTED ABSTRACTS

The Changing World of Coastal, Island and Tropical Tourism
International Conference
Martinique, French West Indies
27 - 29 January 2011


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KEYNOTE ABSTRACT

Dallen J. Timothy
Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA

Tourism, Sovereignty and Supranationalism in a Changing World: Experiences from Islands and Coastal Areas

Key words: sovereignty, supranationalism, borders, regional cooperation, island tourism, coastal tourism

This paper examines the notion of sovereignty in an ever-changing postmodern world and its implications for tourism. New spaces have been created, old spaces have been united, and traditional barriers have been torn down. These and other manifestations of globalization are particularly poignant in island and coastal destinations. Empirical examples will be provided from Europe, North America, the Caribbean, and the Arctic to illustrate shifting notions of absolute sovereignty into supranationalist associations, cross-border cooperative relations, and in some cases, more austere extremes in asserting state sovereignty. All of these changes have salient implications for tourism from planning, marketing, and policy perspectives.


KEYNOTE ABSTRACT

Mark P. Hampton
Centre for Tourism in Islands & Coastal Areas (CENTICA), University of Kent, Canterbury UK.

'Grockles and Horror-cars': Tourism, Heritage and Economic Development in Islands.

Key words: local communities; culture; political economy; islands, coastal toursim

Islands hold a special place in the popular imagination often with an iconic status. Well-known examples from literature and popular culture include Robison Crusoe and television shows like Survivor. Globally, islands attract significant numbers of tourists, both international and domestic and, like coastal areas more generally, often experience intense spatial concentration of tourists (Agarwal and Shaw, 2007). International agencies and governments continue to promote island tourism as a growth strategy (World Bank, 2005). But, what of the local island communities and their heritage(s)?

This keynote paper discusses the connections between tourism, heritage and economic development in islands. In some islands such as Bali it has been argued that local complex cultures and heritages have been simplified and commodified for mass tourist consumption (Picard 1996), what Minca (2006) called the ‘Bali syndrome’. Similarly, in other islands, such as the cold-water destination of Prince Edward Island, Canada, the island itself, and its culture, forms the background for the enduringly popular ‘Ann of Green Gables’ novels set there (Baldacchino, 2006). Whilst the academic literature often views island tourism either within a conventional ‘impacts’ type analysis (for example see Mathieson and Wall, 2006), or within an evolutionary resort cycle (Butler, 1980), this present paper argues for an approach that builds on the work of Ashworth (1997) who asked the crucial question of whose heritage? This is also linked to notions of local resistance to tourism as seen in Goa (Routledge, 2001) arguing that local resistance (or lack of) is another dimension that can be usefully added to an analysis of island tourism within a broader framework of asking ‘who wins and who looses?’ The writings of Bianchi (2002, 2009) also assist here as he argues for revisiting the critical lens used by the broad political economy type approach to tourism as exemplified by Britton (1982), and Hampton and Christensen (2007).



1

Alan A. Lew
Department of Geography, Planning and Recreation, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA

Terra Incognita and Topophilia: The importance of remoteness and the unexpected in the tourist experience

Keywords: Existential tourism, Environmental perception, Islands, Coastal environments, SCUBA

Travel and tourism are usually undertaken to places we know. Such places typically comprise the world of contemporary mass tourism. However, I argue that the unknown is just as important to tourism as the known. In the Age of Exploration (16th and 17th centuries) these areas were marked on maps as Terra Incognita. Today, terra incognita still holds an important role in the travellers experiences of place. Even in places we know (the mass tourism world) there are geographies and experiences that are unknown (terra incognita). However, such experiences are more likely to occur in geographically remote locations, including islands, and in place on the edge of are awareness, including the oceans and seas.

This presentation discusses (1) conceptualizations of mass tourism and terra incognita, (2) their relationship to the existential tourist experience, and (3) this relationship to island locations and water experiences, with examples primarily from Southeast Asian destinations. This conclusions extend the traditional conceptualizations of islands and coasts as seductive tourism places.


2 - Paper withdrawn


3

Bruce Prideaux
James Cook University, Cairns, Australia

Protecting Tropical Rainforests - A Role for Tourism

Globally, tropical rainforests are under pressure from urban expansion, commercial agriculture, subsidence farming, logging, mining and more recently climate change. Vast areas of tropical rainforest have been felled in recent years and the rate of loss continues at a high level. Where they are not protected by the government rainforests provide a tempting target for conversion to other uses. Even where protected by government through various conservation mechanisms large areas of rainforest continue to be lost to other uses. Corruption and lack of enforcement are two of the major causes cited for the failure of conservation mechanisms to protect rainforests. In the future climate change and continuing expansion of the global population will add new and very significant threats to rainforest conservation (Prideaux and Lohmann 2009). The statistics of rainforest destruction are depressing. Madagascar has lost almost two thirds of its original rainforest while little remains of West Africa's rainforests. Economic forces underlie the current loss of rainforest in many areas. In their natural state rainforests appear to have little direct value but when cleared provide areas for farming, lumber, mining and housing, all of which have identifiable economic value. While it can be argued that forests do have significant attributable values based on the environmental services they provide (Pearce 2006; Peters et al 1989) tourism is one of the few industries that can generate direct employment and economic benefits.

In the past Australian rainforests, like those in many nations, were viewed as a resource to be used for agriculture, mining and logging. Their intrinsic value as places of beauty, cultural significance to traditional indigenous owners and recreation were largely ignored by policy makers particularly in areas that were remote form the corridors of power. In north Queensland, the coastal rainforests were seen as a resource that unless put to a 'productive' use such as agriculture were wasted. As a consequence large areas of coastal rainforest was felled and the land used for agriculture while adjoining mountain forests were harvested for their rainforest timbers. The growth of the conservation movement in the 1970s and 1980s and the recognition by government that rainforests had values other than those that could be measured in monetary terms forced both the state and federal government to reassess their position to the destruction of the remaining forest and ultimately resulted in the declaration of much of the remaining area as a World heritage Area in 1988. The declaration was strongly resisted by the timber industry with loss of livelihoods cited as a major concern. At that time the economic value of the forest as a tourism resource was largely unrecognised. In a 2007 report the direct income generated by tourism was estimated by Prideaux and Falco-Mammon as being in the order of AUD$460 million.

The aim of this paper is to examine how tourism many be used as a mechanism for adding economic value to rainforest areas. The outcome of this approach to rainforest tourism is to highlight mechanisms that can be employed in other rainforest regions to protect rainforest while generating economic value for local communities. The paper adopts a synthesis approach using a case study methodology to examine the role of tourism industry as a value adding sector in rainforests. The synthesis is based on a number of projects that have been undertaken by the author over a six year period into various aspects of rainforest tourism in the north Queensland region.


4

Bruno Sarrasin
Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal (Quebec), Canada

Poverty Alleviation and Natural Resources Management in Madagascar: some findings on Ecotourism

Keywords: Madagascar, Environment, Poverty, Structural adjustment, Ecotourism

The globalization process, accelerating in the last 20 years, has raised important developmental stakes: on the one hand, economic questions with the multiplication of exchanges and its concentration in certain regions of the world; on the other hand globalization has also raised important social issues, with the acceleration of demographic flux and the whole question of "inclusion" associated with this; the issues are also environmental, through increased needs and resource limitations. Tourism represents the ideal vector of this globalization and the stakes it represents. By focusing on international tourism in a country in the South, this article seeks to better understand the stakes involved in developing international tourism resources, by seeking an answer to the question: In what ways can ecotourism constitute a real strategy for economic development, poverty alleviation, and contribute to economic growth and the protection of natural resources? We will be examining this question in the context the Ranomafana National Park in Madagascar.


5

Caroline Tafani
and
Marie-Antoinette Maupertuis
University of Corsica, France

Tourism and agriculture in islands: Two complementary activities for a sustainable development?

Key words: agriculture, islands, land-use, rural resources, sustainable development, tourism

For a long time, tourism and agriculture have been studied like opposite activities, as they are in concurrence for resources. Many works particularly focused on land-markets mechanisms and land-use planning and concluded that farming is not able to face the residential sprawl, except for farm-land areas ruled by very strict policy regulations. Such a land allocation leads to threaten agriculture's future. Furthermore, territories sustainability is also called into question: agriculture is indeed a vector of local identity as well it provides environmental services like bushfires fight, landscapes protection, biodiversity and non-renewable resources preservation (water, land, etc.).

The issue of land-use competition is even more accurate for islands where land resource is limited, whereas the tourists demand is high, especially because of their preference for individual and isolated second-houses. However, as a paradox, islands are also particular areas where the tourists demand for rural assets is growing. For decades, as a turning point in globalisation, people in general and tourists in particular pay more and more attention to the origin and the quality of food-products and to eco-friendly practices as well. Moreover, they are looking for local specificities of territories. This is particularly true in touristic islands which are seen as authenticity conservatories, both for their natural and cultural resources. As a consequence, tourists and other territory stakeholders expect from farmers to promote the land by implementing a multifunctional agriculture that provides market and non-market goods and services. In return, the tourists demand for rural assets is seen like a lever for local development.

Therefore in this paper, we propose to analyse conditions for agriculture and tourism to be complementary activities, in a prospect of sustainable development. This study particularly focuses on the supply of rural assets provided by farmers. A systemic analysis is lead in Balagne, a coastal touristic zone and a rural territory located at the north-west of Corsica.

In a first part we present a typology of the productive farming systems identified in the area. Their organisation and their technical-economical outputs are resumed: resources, products and their commercialisation. Then, we assess the contribution of each system to the upkeep of rural assets. Finally, the assessment results taken in the perspective of the systems diagnosis lead to conclude on the conditions for the territory's sustainability.


6

Christelle Murat
CEREGMIA, Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, Martinique, FWI

L'ecotourisme au coeur du projet territorial de l'ile de la Dominique (Petites Antilles)

Mots-cles : tourisme, ecotourisme, developpement rural, amenagement du territoire, Dominique, ile, Petites Antilles

Depourvue de plages de sable blanc et de lagon, est dominee par de vigoureux reliefs volcaniques. Isolee entre les iles francaises de la Guadeloupe et de la Martinique, elle est restee longtemps en marge du tourisme international. La Dominique entreprend son ouverture au tourisme international a travers la valorisation des ressources du Parc national de Morne Trois Pitons, inscrit sur la liste du patrimoine mondial en 1997. La reconnaissance internationale octroyee par ce << label >> qui consacre le patrimoine naturel de l'ile doit lui permettre de s'imposer dans un premier temps sur le marche du tourisme de nature et de l'ecotourisme, sur le modele de Costa Rica dans les annees 1970. Cette destination emergente construit son offre sur le patrimoine naturel, assez bien conserve, auquel s'ajoute une mise en va leur progressive des patrimoines historique, culturel, materiel et immateriel de l'ile.

Le pays se fait donc le chantre d'un modele de developpement durable qui se fonde sur une gestion raisonnee des ressources ou l'ecotourisme s'inscrit dans un plan de lutte contre la pauvrete, soutenant la creation de micro-entreprises locales, a base familiale ou communautaire.


7

Dominique Augier
et
Olivier Dehoorne
CEREGMIA, Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, Martinique, FWI

The paradoxes of a tourism crisis: the example of the Island of Martinique (French West Indies)

Key words: tourism, development, crisis, Martinique, tropical island, French West Indies

Even though the Caribbean region has experienced a sustained growth in tourism, Martinique's position, like that of the French West Indies, is rather paradoxical. Indeed, those French islands (Guadeloupe, Martinique) that could have made a claim to being amongst the leaders at the end of the 1980s, are now facing a crisis. Martinique attracts fewer and fewer French visitors and the number of North American visitors remains on the margin. The tourism potentiality is exciting, but the resources have not been enhanced, and tourist facilities are insufficient and mainly aging. The destination is suffering from a lack of image; its commercial positioning is unclear - somewhere between an all-inclusive resort tourism hit by strong regional competition and newer hesitant approaches such as ecotourism.

Through this paradox of a tourism crisis happening under the Lesser Antilles sun, Martinique's example allows us to illustrate the complexity of the issues around tourism development by highlighting the significance of the relationships between tourism and the host society.


8

Ian Jenkins
and
Ruth Rios-Morales
and
Ralph Cervera
Star (Swiss Tourism Applied Research), Les Roches Gruyere University Of Applied Science, Bulle, Switzerland

Professed Sustainability of Caribbean Companies: Case Study of Internet Evaluation of Company Websites as Vicarious Information Systems for Company Products

Keywords: Caribbean, Sustainability, Qualitative Methods, Indexes, Websites, Adventure Tourism

Climate change is now an important agenda for most, if not all, tourism companies, and the advent of the growth of green and sustainable policies seems to go hand-in-glove with the development of tourism and its future products. It is evident that future tourism will have to embrace the notion of sustainability and it is asserted that companies which are currently doing so can be seen as being ahead of the competition. Adventure tourism and supporting tourism companies are an important source of income for many tourism destinations and can be considered to be a niche tourism product that has exponentially grown over the last 30-40 years (Swarbrooke et al. 2003). The Caribbean has been a popular tourist destination for the last 40-50 years and although primarily a beach destination has been supported by the growth of adventure tourism developments. There also appears to be increasing evidence that niche tourism and tourism environmental products will now have an explicit element of sustainability as part of their product (Edwards 2010, Evans 2010, Ecuador Travel 2010)

The methodology is a qualitative approach using content analysis (Robson 2002) of websites of Caribbean tourism companies. The basis for selection of the sites has been on a judgement sample and segmented to include International/national tourism companies that use the Caribbean, together with local operators. The notion is to compare the perceived level of sustainability that each company has, using an index of sustainability based upon international sustainability criteria. (GSTC Partnership 2009). The index has already been tested on Swiss and UK companies' and the next stage is to evaluate the Caribbean. This is a working paper which draws upon the benchmarking (Lomine & Edmunds 2007, GSTC Partnership 2009) of sustainability; applying this to the tourism industry and then matching these criteria against the available company data, as exhibited by tourism company web-sites. A main focus of the research is adventure tourism but it also encompasses wider tourism products and companies.

A number of interesting perspectives are emerging from the research: it seems evident that even the best tourism companies have a low score when compared to the possible overall percentage that could be achieved. This may be due to a number of dependent factors: firstly, the size of company; secondly, the locality and international dimension of the market and focus. Thirdly, the companies may well be pursuing sustainable policies but fail to see the marketing and product advantage of relaying this information to their clients and markets. Lastly, it may well be that some companies are reticent to embrace sustainable/green policies as this might be seen as a 'negative' perspective for some customers.


9

Jean-Marie Breton
Faculte de Droit et d'Economie, Campus de Fouillole, Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, Guadeloupe, FWI

Gestion touristique du patrimoine culturel et developpement durable dans les territoires
des Antilles et de la Guyane francaises

[Touristic management of cultural heritage and sustainable development in the territories of French West Indies and Guyana]

Mots-cles : Tourisme - Patrimoine culturel - Territoires - Durabilite - Identite - Gestion integree

Les themes problematiques du developpement durable, comme de la gestion integree des res-sources et des espaces, sont aujourd'hui, largement vulgarises et debattus, sans exclure, pour le premier tout au moins, des critiques apparemment iconoclastes bien que souvent justifiees. Ils ne sauraient en effet echapper a la regle empirique qui veut que toute notion, en se vulgarisant et en faisant par la l'objet d'une inevitable recuperation par les non specialistes, tend a perdre en rigueur (semeiologique et scientifique) ce qu'elle gagne en extension (logomachique et populaire).

Les questions afferentes a la preservation et a l'exploitation durable du patrimoine culturel, au service d'activites de loisirs et de decouverte, en relation avec les nouvelles formes de tourismes << alternatifs >> qu'a la fois il suscite et sur lesquelles il s'appuie, ont jusqu'a present ete, elles, moins frequemment et systematiquement analysees, conceptuellement, et, partant, moins << exploitees >>, operationnellement.

De la theorie a la pratique, de l'etat des lieux aux preconisations, du bilan a l'action et au suivi, de la definition de politiques publiques a leur mise en oeuvre instrumentale, grace a des outils juridiques -entre autres- appropries, c'est une reflexion relativement originale qui est proposee ici, des lors que l'on entend, a travers une relation dialectique specifique, mettre la gestion touristique integree du patrimoine culturel, au sens large, au service d'un developpement durable et viable, en priorite au profit des communautes et des populations locales.

Il convient successivement, a cet effet, dans l'esprit et les limites de l'etude qui constitue l'objet du present ouvrage, d'en determiner les donnees problematiques, eu egard precisement a l'analyse de l'etat des lieux en cause, et de la formulation des questionnements y afferents ; puis d'identifier les parametres et conditions de la demarche operationnelle consequente -si l'on entend depasser le niveau de la seule approche conceptuelle et speculative-, a partir d'un certain nombre d'exemples plus specia-lement envisages comme autant d'echantillons de reference, au profit de la formulation d'orientations et de propositions repondant, dans les domaines en cause, a des exigences concretes de gestion et plus particulierement d'aide a la decision.

Eu egard a l'objet de la reflexion presentee, dans lequel la composante << bilan >> prend logiquement le pas sur l'aspect << preconisation >> (dans la perspective que ce rapport soit inverse dans le second), celle-ci s'inscrit scientifiquement et methodologiquement dans un souci et une demarche essentiels de renforcement des capacites de l'ensemble des acteurs du developpement durable. Mais il s'agit tout autant agi de depasser la seule dimension et connotation conceptuelle, prealable et presuppose au demeurant incontournables, pour la prolonger par une sequence operationnelle, dont elle constitue le prolongement et la justification necessaires, et l'indispensable << legitimation >>.

A cet egard, la << production d'outils d'aide a la decision >> doit etre assise sur des moyens dument cibles, dont la mise en oeuvre sera apte a assurer l'appropriation et l'utilisation des resultats obtenus, a partir notamment de l'analyse d'outils deja disponibles. La capacite d'<< invention >> du chercheur, pour ce qui pourra en resulter, doit a cet egard s'appuyer sur ce qui est, pour en induire, a partir d'une evaluation technique exhaustive, ce qui pourra ou devra etre, a la mesure et sous reserve de la volonte et de la capacite des utilisateurs de ces outils, lorsqu'ils se les seront appropries, de les mettre concretement et utilement en oeuvre au service d'un developpement durable et responsable.


10

Klaus J. Meyer-Arendt
Department of Environmental Studies, University of West Florida, Pensacola, Florida, USA

The Costa Maya: Tourism Development vs. Sustainability

Keywords: Costa Maya, Mexican Caribbean, coastal tourism, sustainable tourism

The Costa Maya is a coastal region of southeastern Quintana Roo, Mexico, and adjacent Ambergris Cay, Belize. The term "Costa Maya" dates to the mid-1990s when the Quintana Roo (state) government proposed to develop a second "Riviera Maya" in the southern part of the state. While a Riviera Maya-style touristic corridor of mega-complexes was ultimately rejected by residents and stakeholders, "Costa Maya" was adopted as a vernacular term to describe their coastal region. Geologically as well as vernacularly, the Costa Maya region extends into Belize, where similar environments and tourism development pressures are found.

Along the Mexican Costa Maya, negative local reaction to government tourism-development plans in the 1990s led to calls for a more sustainable form of tourism development, and plans were revised to include a smaller tourism footprint, including low-density housing, marine preserves, and ecotourism. Development so far has focused upon Puerto Costa Maya--where a cruise ship pier and terminal were built in 2001--and the adjacent planned community of Nuevo Majahual, site of a hotel and other tourism infrastructure. A Hard Rock Costa Maya is scheduled to open in Spring 2011.

The nearby beach resort town (balneario) of Majahual, a destination for residents of Chetumal (the state capital) since highway access opened in 1980, soon became a destination for international tourists, most of whom were among the 10-12 shiploads of cruise passengers that arrived in Puerto Costa Maya every week in the early years of the 2000s. Tourism development was steady but unplanned. Category-5 Hurricane Dean made a direct hit in August 2007. Although the town rebuilt (with greater planning), not until Fall 2008 was the cruise ship pier rebuilt and did the first post-storm cruise tourists arrive. This incipient tourism revival was slowed by additional negative factors, including the global economic recession, the swine-flu scare, and perceptions of drug violence. International tourism has not yet reached its pre-hurricane levels in spite of the new cruise ship pier that can accommodate three ships - with 2000 passengers each.

Along the Mexican Costa Maya, there are four major categories of tourists: 1) domestic tourists, who are mostly from Chetumal and who stay for the day (Saturday or Sunday) or perhaps one night, 2) international tourists who arrive (typically by airplane to Cancun and then by rental car) as "specialized tourists" with interests in diving or ecotourism, 3) expatriates, mostly Americans and Canadians, who come to retire, maintain second residences, and/or invest in a developing tourist destination, and 4) the cruise ship passengers who typically spend most of a full day on land while their ship is docked at Puerto Costa Maya. This last group, the greatest in number, is having the greatest economic impact upon the region's tourism infrastructure.

By contrast, the Belizean Costa Maya (Ambergris Cay) traditionally received destination (stayover) tourists, and hotel overdevelopment at San Pedro has led to non-sustainable levels of tourism. Tourism development is spreading north toward nature preserves and the Mexican border, especially as retirees and second-home owners are attracted to a country that is officially English in language and heritage.

To what degree new tourism infrastructure such as a four-lane highway from Cancun, a new international airport at Tulum (TUY), a proposed causeway across the bay from Chetumal to the beach, and a new resort complex at Xahuayxel will stimulate tourism on the Mexican Costa Maya and eventually lead to a coastal highway link with San Pedro, Belize is still unknown.  And perhaps more importantly, to what degree sustainable tourism will be maintained in view of current trends and future plans is still a big question.


11

Lee Jolliffe
Department of Management, Faculty of Social Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Bridgetown, Barbados

National Capital Tourism in Caribbean Islands: The Case of Bridgetown, Barbados

Keywords: national capital tourism; historic capitals; Caribbean capital cities

The phenomenon of tourism to and within the national capital cities of the world has recently caught the attention of tourism academics (Hall, 2002). National capital tourism is often reflected by visits to the governing precincts as well as the national cultural institutions of these cities. The cultural entities such as art galleries and museums can serve as the anchors of regeneration for these urban cities (Hamnet and Shoval, 2003). Four types of national capital cities have been identified, including planned and political capitals; historic and former capitals; global and multifunctional capitals; and re-emerging capitals (Ritchie and Maitland, 2010). The authors identify aspects of tourism in national capitals under the themes of image and brand; visitor experiences; tourism markets; and tourism development.

In the capital cities of the small developing island states of the Caribbean some of the characteristics of national capital tourism profiled in the literature are evident. These capital cities also share some common geographical features in a developing world context, most often being located in port cities that also attract cruise tourism, and most are historic capitals that reflect their colonial legacy with differing colonial heritage layouts and architecture. Jaffe (2007) refers to the Caribbean city as an underexposed phenomenon noting that their distinctiveness is derived from a number of factors including the history of slavery and their spatial limitations. In many Caribbean island locations tourism to the national capitals is the only form of urban tourism at these destinations.

It is the purpose of this paper to explore the potential study of national capital tourism as a form of tourism in the context of the Caribbean, and in particular of the small developing island nation states found there. This research is guided by a research question, "what is the nature of national capital tourism in the Caribbean?" A secondary question is "what can we learn from the study of national capital tourism to Barbados that may be relevant for other capital cities in the region?" First, context is provided through a discussion of the literature on tourism to national capitals and an examination of its relevance to the current study. Second, the general characteristics of Caribbean capital cities are examined, both in terms of their history, geography and the nature of their tourism. Third, a case study of tourism in Bridgetown, Barbados provides the opportunity to examine in more depth the nature of national capital tourism in the Caribbean.

A case study is a useful technique in an exploratory study such as this (Henderson, 1991). Using the national capital research themes identified earlier (Maitland and Ritchie, 2010) as well as themes form the literature on national capital tourism information collected on relevant development initiatives in Bridgetown will be analyzed in light of interviews with key stakeholders. The particular initiatives examined will include the Barbados Chamber of Commerce Beautification of Bridgetown Initiative (2008) and the World Heritage Site nomination of Historic Bridgetown and its Garrison (2005).

In conclusion lessons from the case of national capital tourism in relation to Bridgetown will be discussed and analyzed for their relevance to the other national capital cities of the region. In addition suggestions for future research on the theme of national capital tourism in the Caribbean will be presented.

References
Hall, C. M. (2002) Tourism in capital cities. Tourism 50(3), 235-248.
Hamnett, C. and Shoval, N. (2003) Museums as Flagships of Urban Development. In Hoffman, L. M., Fainstein, S. S., and Judd, D. R. Cities and Visitors: Regulating People, Markets and City Space. Oxford: Blackwell, 219-236.
Henderson, K.A. (1991) Dimensions of choice: A qualitative approach to research in recreation, parks, and leisure. College Park, PA: Venture Publishing.
Jaffe, R. (2008) The Caribbean City. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers.
Maitland, R. and Ritchie, B.W. (2010) City Tourism: National Capital Perspectives. Oxfordshire, UK: Cabi.


12

Marcella Daye
Department of Geography, Environment & Disaster Management, Faculty of Business, Environment & Society, Coventry University, UK

Framing Tourist Risk In Uk & Us Press Accounts Of Hurricane Ivan

Keywords: Hurricane Ivan, tourist risk, Caribbean, crisis communication, media management, press reporting

The nature and extent of media reporting of disasters occurring at destinations may determine the pace of recovery of tourist confidence in the aftermath of such tumultuous events. Particularly for tourism destinations, media reporting of disasters may influence the image of these countries in key tourism generating markets. Consequently, the effectiveness of tourism recovery strategies post disasters may be mediated by the extent to which to the press responds to messages from official destination sources. Media sources for information on disasters are critical in determining the news values of the media with regard to the credibility of official sources of information. The extent to which these news stories are framed in terms of the perspectives of official sources that focus on the management of the crisis and the reduction of visitor risk may be key indicators of the effectiveness of tourism media management strategies. This paper examines the coverage of Hurricane Ivan which has been one of the most deadliest to hit the Caribbean and Florida in the 21st century. Textual analysis was conducted on articles published in selected leading UK and US newspapers in September 2004 to determine the main sources of information on the hurricane and to examine the framing of tourist risk in the press accounts of this disaster. The findings indicate that reportage of the Hurricane in both regions tended to heighten tourist vulnerability and risk. Institutional official sources were often quoted to reinforce danger and 'no-escape' rather than reporting on management strategies to reduce these risks or measures that were implemented to ensure visitor safety. This paper therefore contends that media management strategies on disasters need to go simply beyond prescriptive guidelines to more precise and careful monitoring of media accounts of disasters. Such activities may be invaluable in providing assistance to tourism managers regarding decisions on communications strategies and marketing activity aimed at repairing damage and returning to normality in an affected country or region.


13

Martin Lohmann
Department of Business Psychology, Leuphana University of Lueneburg, Germany

The Island Lover - Consumer Profile and Relevant Set - Empirical Findings from Germany

Key-Words: Island Tourism; Destinations Preferences; Consideration Set; Holiday Behaviour

"Islands in the Sun" are a sort of archetype for tourism destinations. The typical island picture with sunlit sandy beaches, palm trees, and a clear blue ocean with gentle waves is widely used to display or address holiday feelings or wellbeing in general. We can find this image nearly everywhere from literature over travel-brochures to films and pop songs.

In this paper we look at the demand side of island tourism using data from Germany, one of the most important source markets for tourism in the world. It deals with the dynamics in volume and structure of consumer preferences with respect to different landscapes and destinations.

The paper focuses on two research questions: (1) Is there a specific demand for island holidays (the island lover?) and if yes, how can this type of tourist be described in terms of volume, socio-demographic structure, and travel behaviour? And (2) Is there a "need for the Island" or can other types of destinations offer suitable alternatives? This question refers to the substitution ability of islands (Lohmann, 2010).

With respect to these questions we have (re)analysed the results of an annual German holiday survey, the "Reiseanalyse" (RA; www.reiseanalyse.de). This is a yearly (since 1970) representative survey, covering holiday travel behaviour, intentions and attitudes of Germans, conducted every year with a comparable set of questions and based on a random sample of 7,500 face-to-face interviews (Lohmann 2001a; Lohmann & Sonntag, 2006). The analysis is based on data from January 2010, 2008, and, in order to analyze the dynamics over time, 1987.

With respect to the above mentioned research interests we will use specific questions in this survey addressing preferences for different landscapes and for a huge set of destinations around the world. These questions allow to identify the island lovers and to characterize this group in terms of demographics as well as with travel behaviour data. We will compare the resulting picture with the respective pattern obtained in 1987.

In addition we analyse the overlapping of destination preferences: Do Germans with an expressed interest visiting in island destinations also show an interest in non-island destinations? If so, to what extent? And where is the competition?

The results will be discussed with respect to theoretical concepts (e.g. "islandness", cf. Kelman et al., 2009; set theory; variety seeking; volatile consumers), to future trends in German outbound tourism (Lohmann & Aderhold, 2009) and with regard to implications for marketing strategies (Lohmann, 2009).

References:
Kelman, I.; Rauken, T. and Jacobsen, J.K.S. (2009): "Branding islandness for tourism: Perspectives from northern Norwegian islands". Presentation at the 18th Nordic Symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research: Tourism and Hospitality - the Nordic Ways, 22-25 October 2009, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark.
Lohmann, M. (2001): The 31st Reiseanalyse - RA 2001. Tourism (Zagreb); Vol. 49, No. 1 / 2001; 65-67
Lohmann, M. (2009). Coastal Tourism in Germany - Changing Demand Patterns and New Challenges. In: Dowling, R. & Pforr, Ch. (Eds.): Coastal Tourism Development - Planning and Management Issues (pp. 321-342). Elmsford, N.Y., Cognizant
Lohmann, M. (2010) (in press): Uniqueness of Tourism Destinations around the Mediterranean Sea as a function of consumer preferences - empirical findings from Germany. In: Proceedings of the 3rd IRT International Scientific Conference. Volume I, pp. 199-208, Cairo (GEPO)
Lohmann, M. & Sonntag, U. (2006): Die Reiseanalyse als Instrument der Marketingplanung. In: Bachleitner, Reinhard u.a. (Eds.): Innovationen in der Tourismusforschung: Methoden und Anwendungen (pp.77 - 89). Wien/Berlin: Lit Verlag.


14

Nathalie Petit-Charles
et
Bruno Marques
CEREGMIA, Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, Martinique, FWI

Le Tourisme De Croisiere Dans La Caraibe. Spatialisation Et Concentration Des Flux: Analyse En Impact Financier

Mots cles : tourisme de croisiere, Caraibe, concentration, repartition, eloignement, revenu, comportement d'offre

La croissance continue de la frequentation de croisiere dans l'espace caribeen constitue un fait majeur du tourisme international des quatre dernieres decennies. La diminution des croisieristes depuis 2004, la forte et stable concentration sur les dix dernieres annees et le basculement vers l'ouest Caribeen sont aussi les caracteres essentiels de la croisiere caribeenne. La repartition intra-caribeenne du flux d'excursionnistes de croisiere n'a pas a ce jour fait l'objet d'analyses. L'eloignement relativement a la Floride et le revenu des compagnies determinent la concentration de la frequentation de croisiere dans la zone. L'article confirme le comportement d'offre des compagnies de croisiere comme le facteur structurant de la << spatialisation >> de la croisiere dans la Caraibe. Il enrichit la panoplie des politiques economiques des espaces de reception d'un nouvel outil : la comprehension du comportement des compagnies.


15

Novadene Miller
Centre de Recherche et Geographe, University Paul Verlaine Metz, France

The Changing World through coastal, island and tropical Tourism in Jamaica

The tourism industry of Jamaica has been developed at an early stage, and is therefore at a late stage of the product life-cycle. Thus, the question of human impacts on environmental risks and natural disasters linked to tourism is of crucial importance to Jamaica. This paper will therefore set out to examine the human induced - crucial risks which distort the water cycle, posed by tourism activity in the Karst region of Jamaica, Cockpit Country. The Cockpit Country is a protected region, the most endemic part of the island, which is also the 5th highest endemic region in the world. This space is of particular importance for its geographic importance as a watershed. This region also embodies a strong sense of patrimony and bottom- up mobilized, local risk management planning. It also represents a strong symbol of patrimony.

This presentation will provide a water footprint of this protected region in relation to the tourism sector. It will examine the principal sources of risks, posed by humans of land use and the perceptions by the key stakeholders, providers and local population linked on the water cycle. The presentations will also a feature the use of a geosystem to establish a geographical index of what to protect and to map out the link in relation to human activities on land use and land care.

This presentation will feature an overview of the perceptions of the implications of activities on the civil security of the population using principles of geography. Thus, the extent to which the sustainable tourism model proposed has been effective will be examined, using water quality as an indicator of touristic attractiveness and constraints in the Cockpit Country. This will be illustrated using a case study in Flagstaff, located in the North of Cockpit Country, the coastal region, just outside the Cockpit, and Stettin, south of Cockpit. An anthropo-geographic approach will be used to examine the use of the space in these regions. The results gathered from fieldwork survey focused on the local population in the Cockpit Country and key stakeholders such as environmental engineers, state planners, and local community planners will be expounded.

This research has indicated the principal risk perceived by the state legislations and policies put in place such as the Cockpit Country, suggest the greatest risk to the environment is the local socioeconomic activities pursued by the rural population. However the scientific research based on geographical indicators suggest, the principal risk to land space due to the traditional domestic practices such as the traditional sewage system ,traditional domestic usage of rivers and the lack of awareness by the population of the long-term impact of these activities on water quality. Furthermore, the focus on greening tourism activities is following a trend of labels within the framework of codes of ethic for the infrastructure of the tourist activities, with less emphasis on reducing the human stress on the local population which provide the service.


16

Olivier Naria
Centre de Recherches et d'Etudes en Geographie de l'Universite de la Reunion (CREGUR), Universite de la Reunion, Reunion, France
and
Ken Sherwin
National Geographic Society

Tourisme, sports de nature et developpement durable aux Seychelles. Contribution des activites de loisirs pour le developpement des petits espaces insulaires

Mots cles : Sports de nature, tourisme, developpement durable, territoire, acteur

La Republique des Seychelles constitue un archipel forme de quelque 115 petites iles situees dans l'ocean Indien, totalisant 455 km2 et s'etendant sur 1 200 km. Ses iles se distinguent en deux groupes : celles des iles interieures (244 km2) et celles des iles exterieures (211 km2). Les trois plus grandes iles interieures sont Mahe, Praslin et La Digue qui regroupent 95 % de la population.

Les iles des Seychelles offrent en raison de leurs situations geographiques, de leurs configurations geomorphologiques, de leurs particularites climatiques et de l'attractivite de leurs images de destinations touristiques, la possibilite de pratiquer dans des conditions optimales une grande diversite d'activites de tourisme et de sports de nature tout au long de l'annee. La randonnee pedestre et equestre, le VTT, l'escalade, le surf, la plongee, la voile et le canoë-kayak marquent de leurs empreintes les territoires ce petit espace insulaire indianoceanique.

A l'instar de la situation en France metropolitaine ou a la Reunion, les sociologues du sport parlent de << naturalisation >> ou encore << d'ecologisation >> des pratiques sportives (Pociello, 1995 et Chazaud 2000). L'envie de decouvrir de nouveaux horizons, de pratiquer en harmonie avec la nature, d'eprouver une certaine liberte et de se ressourcer dans une ambiance familiale sont les aspirations les plus souvent annoncees aux Seychelles.

Du fait de ce potentiel exceptionnel, le developpement des sports de nature s'inscrit dans l'univers des loisirs et du tourisme. Notre objectif dans cette communication est d'identifier quelle est la place des activites de sports de nature dans l'offre touristique des Seychelles ? Ne contribuent-elles pas, a leurs facons, au developpement durable de l'ile en tissant des relations plus interactives avec l'activite economique, la structuration du territoire et la construction identitaire ? L'enjeu de developpement durable est-il pris en compte par les acteurs politiques seychellois ?

La methodologie repose sur une demarche qualitative qui s'appuie sur la passation de guides d'entretien et sur une observation participante des structures associatives et marchandes. Le champ d'investigation comprend les trois principales iles au coeur desquels les sports nature sont pratiques a des degres divers. Il s'interesse a l'ensemble des acteurs concernes par les interactions entre sports nature, tourisme et developpement durable ainsi qu'aux consommateurs de loisirs sportifs de nature.


17

Rachel Welton
Lecturer International Business and Tourism, The Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK

Coastal tourism: the response of Sri Lanka to climate change.

Key words: climate change, Sri Lanka, mitigation, adaptation

Climate change is not an abstract concept for tourism; it is already reported by the World Tourism Organisation that it is a phenomenon that already affects many destinations. The predicted impacts of climate change such as, temperature increases, sea level rises, reduction of glaciers, changes to precipitation patterns and increased extreme weather events will become more evident, resulting in the deterioration of the natural environment in some tourism destinations. This will obviously diminish the 'pull factors' that influence the tourist's destination selection criteria. The resulting impacts of climate change will change the worldwide flow of tourists dramatically, new destinations will evolve and some current destinations will fold. Low lying coastal areas, such as small island developing states in the Indian and Pacific oceans will be at extreme risk. Many have a high economic reliance upon tourism and yet will be adversely affected by both higher sea levels and raised water temperatures.

The very assembling of a tourist's holiday contributes to the green house gas effect, mostly as a result of the transportation of tourists from generating to destination regions. However, many developing countries utilise tourism as a vector for economic growth and ironically they too tend to be some of the first destinations to observe possible impacts of climate change like the disappearance of beaches and the greater intensity of storms. Destinations in the developing world are extremely concerned that tourists from developed countries will reduce the number of long haul flights they take to ameliorate their carbon footprint. Sri Lanka has launched the Earth Lung project, an initiative that seeks to provide tourists to Sri Lanka with a carbon neutral holiday.

This paper uses Sri Lanka as a case study, to establish the knowledge levels and actions that public and private sector stakeholders within the tourism industry are undertaking to anticipate the impacts of climate change upon Sri Lanka. Semi-structured interviews (approximately one hour each) were conducted with key public and private sector stakeholders so that an understanding was gained of the meanings and importance attached to climate change and tourism. The government representatives included those involved in national tourism policy responsible for the national climate change policy and its implementation, and government officials responsible for tourism and economic policies. The sample of private sector stakeholders included representatives of leading hotel groups, tour and transport operators; tourist attractions, for example dive tour operators.

The interviews focused upon gaining an understanding of the respondent's knowledge of climate change; adaptation and mitigation measures taken or planned by the destination; current and future impacts of climate change and how the tourism industry has responded. This provided an insight as to whether sustainable tourism policies are being encouraged and adaptation and mitigation measures taken or planned and also an assessment of the effectiveness of transfer from policy to practice.  Sri Lanka was visited so that field notes and observational data have been used to corroborate the verbal and documented evidence. This is useful for the purpose of triangulation and to increase the construct validity of the research.

The findings have emerged into eleven key themes. These are: the importance of tourism and the country's reliance on tourism, the ability to predict the current and future effects of climate change, the level of tourism and climate change documentation, the type of government regulation and incentives directed at tourism and climate change, adaptation initiatives, mitigation initiatives, views regarding the role and responsibilities of developed and developing countries, the degree to which climate change is considered in decision making, how optimistic / pessimistic the stakeholders are about tourism in Sri Lanka in 50 to 100 years, the perceptions of the vulnerability of Sri Lanka to climate change and the perceptions of the adaptability of stakeholder groups within Sri Lanka to climate change.

Sri Lanka has been embroiled in a civil war over the last two decades, which has suppressed tourism development and tourist arrivals. The strategic plan proposes aggressive growth now that there is greater political stability. Whilst there is a clear economic need for this growth, the findings show that both the public and private sector stakeholders have concerns about the type of tourism that will be developed. The public sector is concerned that Western tourists will not travel, as the tourist does not want to add to the problem of global warming and this was the catalyst for the Earth Lung project. There is limited knowledge of the project within the private sector. There are however, a number of company based environmental initiatives that are being implemented to help reduce carbon emissions and costs, but these projects have little co-ordination, which resulted in a piecemeal approach. This research forms part of a larger research project that examines a number of tourism destinations located in the Indian Ocean to find out what actions are being taken to mitigate and adapt to climate change by key private and public sector stakeholders within the tourism sector.


18

Robert S. Bristow
Westfield State University, Westfield, Massachusetts, USA
and
Wen-Tsann Yang
Feng-Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan

Sea, sun, sand and ... Selecting Surgery, an exploration of Medical Tourist Travel Behavior

Keywords: medical tourism, travel choice behavior, sustainable tourism

A challenge for marketing coastal and island destinations is the recognition of the spatial choice behavior of tourists. Mass tourism facilities depend on repeat visitors as well as attracting new first time tourists. As these traditional sun and sand holiday destinations mature, tourism promoters are expanding opportunities to attract a different kind of tourist. Since many of these resorts are all-inclusive facilities including a Spa, one potential expansion may be to market to health, wellness or medical tourists.

One primary goal of travel research is to understand what factors might influence the decision-making process. In this manner, tourism planners can identify the determinants of patronage patterns in order to estimate the returns on investments. Travel occurs because people seek alternatives in space where participation in some activity takes place. Like any travel, medical travel is where an individual seeks to meet some desired objective by selecting among alternative hospital destinations and choosing one.

Geographic research in travel and tourism has found that individuals either repeat visits to the same destination or diversify their choices. Since medical tourists are facing travel for a sensitive personal issue, awareness of their travel behavior is important for island and coastal destinations electing to market medical tourism.

For example, in Costa Rica, the Medical Tourism Development Project is proposing the construction of a private hospital, a Robert Trent Jones golf course and complementary support and living facilities. This 1000 hectare property is minutes from the Daniel Oduber Quiros International Airport in Liberia and thirty minutes from the beaches of the Guanacaste Province. Will this facility attract individuals who have vacationed in Costa Rica before or will it attract new tourists?

This presentation highlights the finding of an survey that gathered the travel patterns and motivations, preferences of sustainable tourism management practices and socio-demographics of medical tourists. Medical tourists considered several different destinations prior to their treatment. The data suggests that repeat visitors are more likely to have a level of comfort in their chosen destination. On the other hand, those who exhibited diversified travel behavior were more likely to want their hospital choice to be affiliated with an American Hospital and accredited. There were no differences for preference of sustainable management practices between the repeat and diversified travelers.


19

Sonya Graci
Ted Rogers School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Innovative Initiatives To Sustainable Tourism Development: A Case Study Of Gili Trawangan, Indonesia

Keywords: marine protected area, sustainable tourism, innovation, community based initiatives

The island of Gili Trawangan, Indonesia is located is primarily an island that is focused on dive tourism and is currently in the growth stage of its lifecycle. For many years, Gili Trawangan was primarily underdeveloped however in the span of the last six years (from 2004 onwards) the selling of land to Westerners has resulted in rapid development. This rapid development has greatly affecting the sensitive marine environment that is a popular nesting ground for sea turtles and an abundance of other marine life. The island community, which is comprised of mostly Westerners and local Indonesians has become increasingly concerned with the state of the environment on the island. Tourism development has led to the degradation of coral reefs, erosion of the beach and a large amount of rubbish littering the island. It is through the leadership of one dive shop that the island has attempted to move the sustainability agenda forward. The Gili-Trawangan Ecotrust was instigated to deal mostly with illegal fishing around the island however has quickly become the avenue to tackle other sustainability issues. An environmental audit and sustainability strategy was developed and the island is working to solve its waste management issues, regenerate its coral reefs and develop a partnership to integrate and involve all stakeholders on the island. It has also implemented the collection of an eco-tax that funds many of the initiatives and has ensured the employ of a full time environmental coordinator. This paper will discuss the innovative initiatives undertaken on Gili Trawangan, and how this one island is attempting to take responsibility to manage its environment.


20

Thor Flognfeldt
Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, Norway

Tourism Developing new tourism routes in coastal area

Keywords: Norway, the Coastal Route, variations in the use of transport, segmentation

For Norwegians the name of our country is based on a route - "the way to the North" - and this was not a built route but using of the coast-line itself. As long as the boats and ships were the main means of travel this coastal way - Nor-way" - was the main communication basis for most people, and for transport of goods. But even in the interior of the country, water, namely rivers and lakes were the main structures for communication. The lakes were most efficient for transport during the cold winters, by sledges on the frozen surfaces.

When new means of transport took over most of the traffic, however, sea, lakes and rivers in many ways became obstacles instead of communication ores (?). This gave the government and others new challenges. In the sailing period up to the end of the eighteen hundreds, boats and harbors were the investment focus and sailors were recruited in every community from the age of 15. This meant that in a remote area at the Arctic Circle there were plenty of people who have been sailing around most of the work and could easily be hosts of visitors.

The tourism development in these areas started early: More than a hundred years ago, 1893, a very large and important transport project was lauched - Hurtigruten - or "the coastal steamer". This daily and all- year-around combined cargo and passenger ship route from Bergen to Kirkenes was for years the backbone for the accessibility of coastal and northern Norway. This "success story" - also branded as the "most pretty sea-route in the world" - has lasted for more than a hundred years, but one might admit that the costs of operating have been heavily subsidized during the last decades. Still the daily departures from Bergen to Kirkenes and back again, is kept alive.

Today use of new means of transport are dominating the tourism development all over Norway, and investment are focused as much on better roads, tunnels both through mountains and under the fjords, bridges and railroads as much as on sea transport. In addition a series of airports have been built to satisfy both the need of locals and tourists and new hotels and other means of accommodation are built.

This paper is mostly focusing on "how to market and develop these beautiful coastal areas to travelers using either their own cars, bikes, boats or collective transport". What types of geographical units are suited for marketing and developing such areas and how might local producers of accommodation, food & beverages, crafts, activities and arts be included in such organizations. The main focus will be on the work of organization "Kystriksvegen Reiseliv AS" that have been working with these challenges for closed to two decades. What have their successes and obstacles been and how have they been able to operate a sustainable business on a long coastal route with many car ferries, small islands, fjords and mountains and more than twenty municipalities.


21

Urban Nordin
Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University, Sweden

Second home tourism in a changing society - The Swedish example

Keywords: Second homes, tourism, regular visits, stable phenomenon, societal changes, local and regional development.

Privately owned second homes are a common occurrence in the Scandinavian countries and in Sweden it is the largest tourism category. In Sweden there are about 600,000 second homes, approximately 80 % are located in coastal and waterfront areas relatively near the larger towns. The motives to acquire a second home are often related to activities like bathing, sailing and fishing. More than 20% of the country's households own a second home, a proportion that has remained relatively constant since the late 1970s until around 2005, when we see a slight decrease of second homes in Sweden.

Privately own second homes are a relatively new phenomenon, seen in large-scale only in the post-war period. The expansion of these holiday homes has been accompanied by large and fairly dramatic social changes within the wider community, and also for individuals and families.

Industrialization in Sweden, like other Nordic countries, occurred relatively late. In the late 1800's more than 70 percent were employed or engaged in agriculture and nearly 90 percent lived in rural areas. Over 100 years later, those proportions have been reversed, i.e. less than 2 percent currently supports themselves from agriculture and 80 percent live in urban areas. The industrialization of Sweden has a strong connection with the exploitation and processing of domestic raw materials. Household migration during the early phases of industrialization were from rural areas to small towns, which was followed by urban concentration in parallel with a significant but weaker migration from urban areas back to rural areas in the urban periphery.

Societal changes have resulted in a strong geographic concentration of large agglomerations of human capital and also capital tied to real estate. In parallel, a strong reduction of use values in rural areas occurred, which was a material pre-condition for the rise of dual housing.

The aim is to see, using data from different time periods and the results from previous studies, to what extent second home tourism has changed and has been influenced by these broad societal changes.

The results of this study show that second home tourism is a stable phenomenon. Despite extensive and radical societal changes private ownership of second homes has not changed in any fundamental way. The exceptions are changes related to household ages. Young people spend less time in second homes and thus have less contact both with other second homes and with permanent residents in neighbourhoods with recreational houses. Compared to the past, second home owners tend to be older. They visit their house more often than they did 40 years ago and have more developed relationships with people living in the surroundings. Second homes can benefit local and regional development because of the owners' regular visits over a long period of time, sometimes over several generations. These visits are due to the owners' strong emotional ties to the holiday home and its surroundings - many have grown up in rural areas. For many owners the second home is more "permanent" than the permanent home, which can change more often in the life cycle.



SUBMITTED ABSTRACTS

The Changing World of Coastal, Island and Tropical Tourism
International Conference
Martinique, French West Indies
27 - 29 January 201